Improvements in power transformers will address the needs of the smart grid. Benefits include enhanced energy security, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, improved urban air quality, and greater grid utilization.
Accurate modeling of power electronic converters, i.e., obtaining control to output transfer function, must include series resistance of capacitors and inductors. A simple method allows measurement of a capacitor’s Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR).
Large-scale adoption of wearable devices will depend on availability of two important technologies: improved batteries and higher density transistor circuits. These two technologies have been made possible by semiconductor lithography.